Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
- Dec 22, 2018 -

The development course


PVC waterproof material


PVC waterproof material


Polyvinyl chloride as early as 1835 for the United States v. leno discovered that when the sun irradiates vinyl chloride to form a white solid, that is, polyvinyl chloride.



PVC was discovered twice in the 19th century, one by Henri Victor Regnault in 1835 and the other by Eugen Baumann in 1872. In both cases, the polymer appeared as a white solid in a beaker of vinyl chloride placed in the sun. In the early 20th century, Ivan Ostromislensky, a Russian chemist, and Fritz Klatte of Griesheim Elektron, a German firm, both tried commercial use of PVC, but the difficulty was processing the hard, sometimes brittle polymer.



In 1912, German Fritz Klatte synthesized PVC and applied for a patent in Germany. However, before the patent expired, no suitable product could be developed.



In 1926, Waldo Semon of B.F. Goodrich company synthesized PVC and applied for patent in the United States. In 1926, Waldo Semon and B.F. Goodrich Company developed a method to plasticize PVC by adding various additives, making it more flexible and easier to process, and it was soon widely used commercially.



In 1914, it was found that organic peroxide could accelerate the polymerization of vinyl chloride. In 1933, W.L. Simon proposed that PVC could be heated and mixed with high-boiling solvent and tricresol phosphate ester to produce soft PVC products, which made a real breakthrough in the practical application of PVC. The suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride and the processing and application of PVC were developed almost simultaneously by the united carbide and guttridge chemical companies in 1936. In order to simplify the production process and reduce energy consumption, the bulk polymerization method was developed by French saint-gobain company in 1956. In 1983, the world's total consumption was about 11.1mt and the total production capacity was about 17.6mt. It is the second largest plastic variety after polyethylene, accounting for about 15% of the total plastic production. The PVC production plant designed by China was piloted in 1956 in jinxi chemical plant of liaoning province. In 1958, the 3kt plant was officially industrialized, with an annual output of 530.9kt in 1984.



PVC was industrialized in the early 1930s. Since the 1930s, for a long time, polyvinyl chloride production has been in the world's plastic consumption occupies the first place. Polyethylene replaced polyvinyl chloride in the late 1960's. Although polyvinyl chloride plastic has retreated to the second place, it still accounts for more than a quarter of the total plastic production.



Before the 1960s, the production of monomer vinyl chloride was basically based on acetylene carbide, because calcium carbide production requires a lot of energy and coke, high cost. After vinyl oxychloride was industrialized in the early 1960s, countries turned to cheaper oil as a raw material. In addition, due to a large proportion of polyvinyl chloride raw materials (about 57% of the weight) is bound to be associated with the alkali industry by-product chlorine, not only rich source of raw materials, but also the development of chlor-alkali industry, balance of chlorine gas is one of the very important products. So the proportion of polyvinyl chloride in plastic has decreased, but still maintained a high growth rate.



PVC plastic products are widely used, but in the mid-1970s, people realized that PVC resin and products residual monomer vinyl chloride (VCM) is a serious carcinogen, no doubt to a certain extent will affect the development of PVC. However, people have succeeded in reducing VCM residues through automobile and other means, so that the VCM content in PVC resin is less than 10ppm, which meets the requirements of hygienic resin and expands the application scope of PVC. Even the VCM content in the resin can be less than 5ppm, and the residual VCM after processing is very small. Basically harmless to human body, can be used as food and drug packaging and children's toys.